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Richmond & Surrounding Area Civil War Sites
BACKGROUND: Starting in 1926 the Commonwealth of Virginia initiated a program of installing highway markers to designate points of interest for travellers to the Old Dominion. Included are numerous markers designating Civil War battles, individuals as well as other points of interest regarding the War between the States. With over 60% of all Civil War battles taking place here, Virginia had little difficulty installing road markers for those interested in taking the time to pull over their cars, get out, read the markers and perhaps ponder a few moments of what they have just read and what it meant.
As a service to those of similiar interest, we have created a complete list of all markers currently present in Virginia (as well as those now lost to the ages) that we are aware of. If you know of any we may be missing, please contact us.
In addition, we hope to compile a list of other Civil War points of interesta within Virginia that will include other Civil War sites, cemeteries, museums, etc., along with the addresses, telephone numbers and person to contact. We ask you assistance if you are aware of worthy Civil War points of interest to include here. Please contact us.
We have broken down these markers into four sections of the state
1) Shenandoah Valley and western part of the state
2) Northern Virginia
3) Central Virginia, including Richmond and the Piedmont region
4) Tidewater Virginia, including southeast and southcentral Virginia.
Originally, all landmarkers were assigned a letter of the alphabet and a number; the letter designating the highway (early part of the century roads were given letters not route numbers). Today, many markers are no longer in existence and if so, we will notify you of such. (DESIGNATED by the abbreviation N/A and printed in blue). However, just because the marker is no longer present, remember that history still abounds at these sites (if not developed) and you may have the opportunity to stop at places the general public is no longer aware of anymore. All locations are approximate since many car odometers will vary in calibration. Where ever possible, the markers are not being presented in numerical order but by their proximity to their location to others on the same highway. This should assist you to locate the markers on the road you will be currently travelling.
In addition, we found the following book compiled by for the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission titled, "A Guidebook to Virginia's Historical Markers," ISBN 0-8139-1047-1, and ISBN 0-8139-1491-4 1994 update to be of immense help in creating this website. If anyone finds any errors or missing markers, etc., please contact us.
Thank you for visiting our website and please E-mail us your thoughts
1) City of Charlottesville
2) Albemarle County
3) Charlottesville County
4) Louisa County
5) Hanover County
6) Henrico County
7) New Kent County
8) Charles City County
9) Prince George County
10) City of Petersburg
11) City of Richmond
12) Chesterfield County
13) Dinwiddie County
14) Nottoway County
15) Amelia County
16) Prince Edward County
17) Appomattox County
18) Buckingham County
19) Fluvanna County
20) Cumberland County
21) Goochland County
22) Powhatan County .
There are no Historical Civil War Road Markers located in the city of Manassas.
The 19th Century mill village of Rio Mills stood 600 yards west of here, where the former Harrisonburg-Charlottesville Turnpike crossed the South Fork of the Rivanna River. Following the Battle of Rio Mills on February 29th, 1864, Union General George Armstrong Custer burned the cover bridge and gristmill at Rio Mills. Immediately rebuilt under the direction of Abraham L. Hildebrand, the gristmill continued to grind wheat and corn for the Confederacy. The milling operation apparently closed down soon after 1900. (Route 29, 5.75 miles north of Charlottesville).
Thomas Sumter, Revolutionary soldier in South Carolina for whom Fort Sumter was named, lived for a time in his youth at Sumter's Mill, five miles southeast. (Route 29, 5 miles south of Ruckersville). [N/A]
Near here, Stonewall Jackson's troops entrained, May 4, 1862, to go west to Staunton in the move that led to the Battle of McDowell, May 8, 1862. (Route 250, at the crossing of Mechums River).
There are no Historical Civil War Road Markers located in the city of Manassas.
Here the county seat was established in 1742. The British Cavalryman, Tarleton, stopped here on his raid to Charlottesville, June 3, 1781. Brigadier General George Stoneman, U.S.A., raided the place and destroyed the railroad, May 2, 1863. Near here Fitz Lee camped June 10, 1864, just before the Battle of Trevilians. (At the intersection of Routes 33 and 22, west of Trevilians).
Near here Wade Hampton's Confederate Cavalry camped the night of June 10, 1864, just before the Battle of Trevilians.(Route 33, 7 miles west of Louisa).
Here on June 12, 1864, Major General Philip Sheridan's Cavalry, coming from Trevilians, attacked Wade Hampton, who had taken position across the road. A bloody engagement followed. Fitz Lee joined Hampton, and the Union cavalry was driven back. That night Sheridan retired eastward. (Route 33, 4.5 miles west of Louisa).
Near here George Armstrong Custer of Philip Sheridan's Cavalry, raiding westward, got between Fitz Lee's division and the rest of Wade Hampton's Cavalry, capturing wagons. The Confederates recaptured the wagons but withdrew to the west after a fierce conflict, June 11, 1864. (Route 33, 4.5 miles west of Louisa). [N/A]
An important point because the junction of two railroads, the Virginia Central (C. & O.) was Robert E. Lee's main line of supply in 1864 and was protected by the earthworks here. Lee camped here on May 22nd and 23rd, 1864. (Route 1, 7.6 miles north of Ashland). [N/A]
A short distance to the east, at Taylorsville, Robert E. Lee had his headquarters, May 24th to 26th, 1864, as his Army of Northern Virginia moved southeastward to intervene between Ulysses S. Grant and the Confederate Capitol of Richmond. There Lieutenant General Richard Stoddard Ewell's Corps turned to Cold Harbor, May 27, 1864. (Route 1, 6.2 miles north of Ashland).
On this stream, the Little River, and to the west, Robert E. Lee's left wing rested while his Army of Northern Virginia faced General Ulysses S. Grant along the North Anna River. (Route 1, 5.2 miles north of Ashland).
The wagon trains of Robert E. Lee's Army crossed the South Anna River here on May 27, 1864. On the railroad bridge just to the east General James Longstreet's (Anderson's) and Daniel Henry Hill's Corps crossed the river on the same day on the way to Cold Harbor. (Route 1, 3 miles north of Ashland). [N/A]
Near here, on Winston's Farm, James Ewell Brown (J.E.B.) Stuart, advancing north, camped on June 12, 1862. Stuart was scouting to find the position of the right wing of McClellan's Army besieging Richmond. At this point, he turned east to Hanover Courthouse. Stuart made a complete circuit of the Union Army. (Route 1, 1.9 miles north of Ashland).
Henry Clay was born a few miles to the east, and as a boy brought grain to a mill here. This place was raided by George Stoneman, U.S.A., on May 3, 1863; by Judson Kilpatrick, on March 1, 1864; and by Philip Henry Sheridan, on May 11, 1864. (Route 1, at Ashland). [N/A]
Stonewall Jackson, coming from the Shenandoah Valley, moved east over the Ashcake Road to join Robert E. Lee, confronting George B. McClellan at Mechanicsville, June 26, 1862. Owing to many obstacles, Jackson did not join Lee until the next day, June 27, 1862, while the Battle of Gaine's Mill was raging. His attack won the battle. (Route 1, .4 mile south of Ashland). [N/A]
On this spot, on June 25, 1862, the Fourth Virginia Cavalry fought a skirmish with the Eighth Illinois Cavalry. (Route 1, 1 miles south of Ashland). [N/A]
Robert E. Lee had his headquarters near here, May 27, 1864, while moving south from the North Anna River. Here James Longstreet's (Anderson's) and Daniel Henry Hill's Corps of his Army turned east to meet Ulysses Simpson Grant at Cold Harbor, where a great battle was fought, June 3, 1864). (Route 1, 4.5 miles south of Ashland).
Near this river and some miles to the east were fought the Battles of Seven Pines, May 31st through June 1st, 1862; Mechanicsville, on June 26, 1862; Gaine's Mill, on June 27, 1862; Savage's Station, on June 29, 1862; and Cold Harbor, on June 3, 1864. (Route 1, 4.9 miles south of Ashland). [N/A]
Longstreet's and D.H. Hill's divisions of Lee's Army crossed the river here, in the afternoon of June 26, 1862, to attack the Union force at Mechanicsville. It was the opening of the Seven Days' Battles. (Route 360, near the Hanover and Henrico county line).
Approaching Richmond from the north after the Wilderness Campaign, Lt. General Ulysses Simpson Grant sought to cross the North Anna River and capture the critical rail center at Hanover Junction (Doswell). General Robert E. Lee ordered the construction of a complex web of earthworks here to defend the river crossing and junction. The Union Army probed the defenses and captured some of them but soon abandoned the effort and moved east toward Cold Harbor. (Route 1, .65 mile south of the Hanover-Caroline County line).
Laurel, first named Hungary Station, was the location of a spur railroad line to the coal fields in western Henrico County. During the Civil War the station here was burned, and Colonel Ulrich Dahlgren's body was secretly buried here in March, 1864 and later re-interred in Philadelphia. Nearby stood the first public school in Henrico County. In 1890 the Laurel Industrial School for Boys was established here as an alternative to imprisonment. Several nearby buildings served the institution, later called the Virginia Industrial School; during 1920-1922 the school was moved to Beaumont in Powhatan County. (Intersection of Hungary Road and Hungary Springs Road).
A half mile north, a brigade of Union infantry commanded by Brigadier General James H. Ledlie struck the center of Robert E. Lee's Confederate army, which blocked Grant's approach to Richmond. Formidable earthworks hastily erected by Brigadier General William H. Mahone's division anchored the Confederate battle line at Ox Ford on the North Anna River. Although instructed to use "utmost caution," Ledlie, fortified with alcohol, ordered a charge. His men were bloodily repulsed and suffered more than 300 casualties, while Mahone lost about 50. On May 27th, Grant withdrew toward Totopotomoy Creek. ( Route 684, 2.43 miles west or Route 1).
Some miles west of this spot the four corps of General Ulysses S. Grant's Army crossed the river, May 28 and 29, 1864, moving toward Richmond. This move was followed by the Battle of Cold Harbor. (Route 360, 11.8 miles northeast of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
Here at Marlbourne (named for marl) is the grave of Edmund Ruffin, one of the greatest of American agriculturists. Ruffin moved here in 1843 and here carried on many of the experiments that made him famous. An ardent seccessionist, he fired the first gun at Fort Sumter, April, 1861, and served in the Confederate Army until incapacitated by age. He died in June, 1865. (Route 360, 8.9 miles northeast of Mechanicsville).
This is the site of Old Bethesda Church. Here, on May 30, 1864, a part of Major General Gouverneur Kemble Warren's (Fifth) Corps, of General Ulysses S. Grant's army, advancing southward, was attacked by Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early. On June 2, 1864, Early here attacked Major General Ambrose Everett Burnside's (Ninth) Army Corps. (Route 360, 4.6 miles northeast of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
The left of Robert E. Lee's line at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, crossed the road here. The main battle took place to the east, where Ulysses S. Grant attacked Lee's trenches without success. (Route 360, 3.6 miles northeast of Mechanicsville).
Stonewall Jackson, coming from the Shenandoah Valley to join Robert E. Lee, crossed the road here in the morning of June 27, 1862. He met Lee at Walnut Grove Church not far to the south. That afternoon Jackson joined in the attack that carried the position held by Fitz John Porter of George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac on Boatswain Creek. (Route 360, 1.8 miles northeast of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
Here the Confederates attacked the force holding Major General George B. McClellan's fortified position on the east bank of Beaver Dam Creek, June 26, 1862. (Route 360, .2 mile northeast of Mechanicsville).
Major General Philip H. Sheridan, moving from Richmond, reached this point on May 12, 1864, after a fight, and passed on to the James River near Shirley. (Route 360, at Mechanicsville). [N/A]
Mechanicsville was held by Union outposts when, in the early afternoon of June 26, 1862, Ambrose Powell (A.P.) Hill reached it coming from the north. The Unionists were quickly driven back to their position on Beaver Dam Creek. Then Daniel Henry (D.H.) Hill, followed by James Longstreet, crossed the Chickahominy River on this road and joined A.P. Hill. (Route 360, at Mechanicsville).
By this road the Confederates moved to attack McClellan's fortified position at Ellerson's Mill on Beaver Dam Creek, June 26, 1862. Beyond is the field of Gaine's Mill, fought on June 27, 1862. (Route 156, .5 mile south of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
Down this slope in the late afternoon of June 26, 1862, Ambrose Powell (A.P.) Hill moved to attack the Unionists holding the east side of Beaver Dam Creek. General William Dorsey Pender's Brigade was on the left, Roswell Sabine Ripley's on the right. Exposed to a terrible fire from entrenched troops, Pender and Ripley were driven back, though some men reached the stream. (Route 156, .8 mile south of Mechanicsville).
This ridge was occupied by Fitz John Porter's Corps (facing west), which formed the right wing of George B. McClellan's Army, June 26, 1862. The strong position was strengthened by earthworks and by an abatis along the creek. When Ambrose Powell (A.P.) Hill attacked late in the afternoon, the Confederates were driven back with severe loss. (Route 156, 1.2 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Along this road Fitz John Porter, U.S.A., withdrew from Beaver Dam Creek in the early morning of June 27, 1862. George B. McClellan, having learned that Stonewall Jackson was approaching Porter's rear, late at night ordered the withdrawal to another position. This was on Boatswain Creek, not far from New Cold Harbor. (Route 156, 1.7 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Here Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson conferred in the morning of June 27, 1862. Jackson's troops halted here until Ambrose Powell (A.P.) Hill arrived from Beaver Dam Creek. Hill then moved southward by Gaines's Mill and James Longstreet along a road near the river; Stonewall Jackson turned to the east. All three columns approached the Union position on Boatswain Creek. (Route 156, 2.7 miles south of Mechanicsville).
The road to the south is the New Bridge road leading to Old Tavern (Highland Springs). In the 1862 campaign, this bridge and road played an important part in the movements of both armies. The Unionists moved from New Bridge to Mechanicsville on May 24, 1862. James Longstreet and A.P. Hill crossed the bridge on June 29, going to the Battle of Glendale. (Route 156, 4.3 miles south of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
This is the site of Gaines's Mill, which gave its name to the Battle of June 27, 1862. Here A.P. Hill's advance guard, following Fitz John Porter, came in contact with the Union rear guard. After a short action the Unionists withdrew to a position on Boatswain Creek, closely pursued by the Confederates. (Route 156, 5 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Half a mile south in Boatswain Creek. The battle that was begun at Gaines's Mill by A.P. Hill, following Fitz John Porter's rear guard, culminated at the Union position on Boatswain Creek. There A.P. Hill and James Longstreet, moving eastward, and Stonewall Jackson coming from the north converged to attack the Unionists. (Route 156, 5.7 miles south of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
A.P. Hill, in the afternoon of June 27, 1862, moved down this slope, crossed the creek and repeatedly charged the hill to the east, only to be driven back. Robert E. Lee sent in James Longstreet on Hill's right; but the position was not taken until Stonewall Jackson, on the north, joined in the attack. (Route 156, 6.3 miles south of Mechanicsville). [N/A]
Along the slopes of Boatswain Creek, facing north and west, extended Fitz John Porter's position in the afternoon of June 27, 1862. The line was held by General George Sykes's Division facing north, and George Webb Morell's facing west. Later, George Archibald McCall was thrown in to assist Morell. At dark, Robert E. Lee broke the Union line, and Fitz John Porter retreated across the Chickahominy River. (Route 718, 6.5 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Stonewall Jackson reached this point in the afternoon of June 27, 1862, after a circuit of Gaines's Mill. When he learned that A.P. Hill and Longstreet to west were hard pressed, he moved south to joion in the attack. (Route 156, 7.8 miles south of Mechanicsville).
The hill to the south, part of the Union line, was assailed by Stonewall Jackson (with D.H. Hill) in the late afternoon of June 27, 1862, after A.P. Hill's and James Longstreet's first assaults on the west had failed. Stonewall Jackson's men carried the Union position at the bayonet's point, while A.P. Hill and Longstreet were also successful. (Route 156, 8.2 miles south of Mechanicsville).
On this hill, facing north, General George Sykes's U.S.A., Division was posted in the afternoon of June 27, 1862, holding the eastern end of the Union line. Here Stonewall Jackson attacked, while to the west, A.P. Hill and Longstreet renewed their assaults. When the Union line was broken on their left, Sykes's regulars fell back to the river still fighting. (Route 156, 8.5 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Here Major General Edwin Vose Sumner, U.S.A., crossed the river to reinforce the part of George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac fighting at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. Here a part of Fitz John Porter's force crossed in the night of June 27, 1862, after the Battle of Gaines's Mill. Here Stonewall Jackson, rebuilding the bridges destroyed by the retreating Unionists, crossed in pursuit, June 29. (Route 156, 11.1 miles south of Mechanicsville).
The first railroad depot at Beaver Dam was built circa 1840 to serve the farmers of Hanover and Louisa counties. Its strategic location during the Civil War made it the target of many Union raids. The July 20th, 1862 raid saw the depot burned and Colonel John S. Mosby, the Grey Ghost, captured as he waited for a train to take him to General Stonewall Jackson. Rebuilt after this raid, the depot was again burned by Union troops on February 29th, 1864, and May 9th, 1864, the last time by the cavalry of General George Armstrong Custer. The existing depot was rebuilt and rededicated in 1866. (Route 739, at Beaverdam).
Half a mile northwest occurred the action of Golding's Farm at dusk on June 27, 1862, as the Battle of Gaines's Mill, on the other side of the river, was ending. The Confederates, sallying from their defenses, attacked General Winfield Scott Hancock's Brigade holding the right of the Union line south of the river. A severe fight followed that was ended by darkness. (Route 156, 12.8 miles south of Mechanicsville).
Half a mile north took place the action of Allen's Farm, or the Peach Orchard, in the morning of June 29, 1862. There General Edwin Vose Sumner's Corps, forming the Union rear, was attacked by General John Bankhead Magruder at 9 o'clock, a.m. Fighting lasted for two hours until 11 o'clock, a.m., when the Unionists fell back to Savage's Station on the York River Railroad. (Route 156, at Seven Pines).
On the hilltops here ran the outer line of the Richmond fortifications, 1862 to 1865. (Route 360, 1.4 miles southwest of Mechanicsville).
Here, at Seven Pines, was Major General George Brinton McClellan's second and main line of defenses. The Confederates, under Daniel Henry (D.H.) Hill, having taken the first line, attacked this position, held by Union Generals Silas Casey and Darius Nash Couch and reinforced by Philip Kearny, May 31, 1862. The battle was bitterly contested until James Longstreet sent in fresh troops. The Union line was broken; the Unionists fell back a mile and a half east. (Route 60, at Seven Pines).
The Confederates attacked McClellan's Army along the railroad nort of this road but soon withdrew, ending the battle, June 1, 1862. On the same day, Robert Edward Lee assumed the command of the Army of Northern Virginia, replacing the injured Joseph Eggleston Johnston. (Route 60, .3 mile east of Seven Pines). [N/A]
Here ran George B. McClellan's third line of defense, May 31st through June 1st, 1862. The Confederates, taking the first and second lines on this road, did not reach the third. (Route 60, 1.3 miles east of Seven Pines).
Near here, on June 29, 1862, John B. Magruder attacked the rear of McClellan's army withdrawing to the James River and fought an indecisive action. McClellan continued his withdrawal. (Route 60, 2 miles east of Seven Pines). [N/A]
Here Confederate General John Bankhead Magruder's line of battle, facing east, formed in the late afternoon of June 29, 1862. Generals William Barksdale's, Paul Jones Semmes's, and Joseph Brevard Kershaw's Brigades, extending south of this road to the railroad, made a desperate effort to prevent the Union withdrawal. After a fierce struggle the Confederates fell back. In this battle they made the first known use of railway artillery. (Route 60, 3.6 miles east of Seven Pines).
Here, facing west, stretched the Union line in the afternoon of June 29, 1862. William T. Harbaugh Brook's Brigade was south of the road with Willis Arnold Gorman's and William Wallace Burns's Brigades to the north. In a furious conflict, Burns's line was broken but was restored by Major General Edwin Vose Sumner in person. Darkness ended the conflict. The Unionists withdrew southward. (Route 60, 3.6 miles east of Seven Pines).
In this vicinity a part of General George B. McClellan's Army remained for several weeks after the Battle of Seven Pines. The part of the army north of the Chickahominy River was attacked by Robert E. Lee, June 26th and 27th, 1862. McClellan then began to withdraw to the James River. (Route 60, 3.6 miles east of Seven Pines).
On the hill just to the west Stonewall Jackson placed his artillery about midday on June 30, 1862. An artillery duel then began with General William Buel Franklin, U.S.A., guarding the south side of White Oak Swamp, that lasted until dark. (Route 156, 6.7 miles southeast of Seven Pines).
Here the greater part of George B. McClellan's army and wagon trains crossed the swamp, June 28th through 30th, 1862. Stonewall Jackson, pursuing, arrived about noon on June 30th, to find the bridge destroyed and that the Unionists holding the south side. Failing to force a passage that day, Stonewall Jackson rebuilt the bridge and crossed early on July 1. (Route 156, 7.1 miles south of Seven Pines).
Across the road here, June 30, 1862, extended the Union line of battle, facing west. Generals Henry Warner Slocum's and Philip Kearny's Divisions were north of the road, George Archibald McCall's and Joseph Hooker's south of it. The battle opened with an attack on Truman Seymour's Brigade of McCall's Division and raged furiously until after nightfall. In the night the Unionists withdrew to Malvern Hill. (Route 156, on the Darbytown Road, 10.2 miles south of Seven Pines). [N/A]
Here stood the center of James Longstreet's line of battle in the afternoon of June 30, 1862. The Confederates, coming from the west, attacked the Union line just beyond. The battle lasted all afternoon, with varying fortunes and much hand to hand fighting. Near nightfall, Longstreet sent in A.P. Hill to relieve his exhausted men. (Route 156, on the Darbytown Road, 10.5 miles south of Seven Pines).
The possession of this, the Quaker Road, on June 30, 1862, saved George B. McClellan's army from destruction. The Confederates, coming from the west, sought to seize the road and block the Union withdrawal to the James River. While Longstreet was fighting a rear guard Battle at Glendale, the Union wagon trains and artillery passed along this road and another road two miles east. (Route 156, 10 miles south of Seven Pines)
Here Robert E. Lee met with James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson, on the morning of July 1, 1862. D.H. Hill reported the strength of the Union position on Malvern Hill; but Lee, having cause to believe the Unionists were weakening, prepared to attack. Jackson and D.H. Hill moved on this road southward to Malvern Hill. (Route 156, 10.6 miles south of Seven Pines).
This was the extreme left of the Union line at Glendale, and was held by Joseph Hooker's Division. When George Archibald McCall (just to the north) was broken, Joseph Hooker, supported by William Wallace Burns's Brigade, drove the Confederates back. In the night the Union Army of the Potomac moved southward. (Route 156, 11.1 miles south of Seven Pines).
Across the road here stretched the Confederate line of battle, facing south, in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Stonewall Jackson commanded here, John B. Magruder to the west. James Longstreet and A.P. Hill were in reserve. The battle lasted intermittently from morning to night, reaching its crisis late in the afternoon. The disjointed Confederate attacks were repulsed with heavy loss. (Route 156, 12.3 miles south of Seven Pines).
Here from east to west, Colonel Berdan's sharpshooters of George Webb Morell's Division were strung out in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Their rapid and accurate fire harassed the Confederates as they emerged from the woods and charged up the hill. (Route 156, 12.5 miles south of Seven Pines).
Across the hill here from east to west the Union artillery was in position in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. The Union batteries overpowered the few cannon the Confederates were able to bring up. When the Southern infantry charged from the woods, they were met by a terrible artillery fire but continued to advance until they came under the fire of the Union infantry. (Route 156, 12.6 miles south of Seven Pines).
Across the road here stretched the Union line of battle in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Union Generals Darius Nash Couch's, Philip Kearny's, and Joseph Hooker's Divisions were to the east of the road, George Webb Morell to the west, with George Sykes in reserve. The Confederates made several attacks and, for a time, the battle trembled in the balance; but the assailants were finally repulsed. In the night the Union army withdrew to the James River. (Route 156, 12.7 miles south of Seven Pines).
The troops of General Theophilus Hunter Holmes, C.S.A., reached this point on June 30, 1862. It was Holmes' part in Robert E. Lee's plan to take Malvern Hill; but the fire of the Union artillery there and the gunboats in the (James) river held him here, inactive. He remained here the next day, July 1, while the Battle of Malvern Hill was being fought. (Route 13.8 miles south of Seven Pines). [N/A]
In this vicinity, Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, Union Cavalryman, raiding to Richmond, fought an action with the force defending the city in the early evening of March 1, 1864. Dahlgren, unable to cross to the southside of the river as planned, attempted to break through the defenses on this road but was repulsed. He then turned off to the east and was killed. (Route 60, 1.25 miles west of Richmond). [N/A]
At Varina, a short distance to the south, John Rolfe and Pocahontas lived after their marriage in 1614. The place became the first county seat of Henrico County, and here also was the glebe house of Rev. James Blair, founder of William and Mary College. Under the name of Aiken's Landing, Varina was a point of exchange for prisioners in 1862. Fort Harrison nearby was one of the principal works in the Richmond defenses, 1862 to 1864. It was captured on September 29, 1864. (Route 5, 4.5 miles southeast of Richmond).
On August 16th, 1864, Confederate Brigadier General John R. Chambliss, Jr., was killed near here attempting to evade capture during the Second Battle of Deep Bottom. As troops of the 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry removed his epaulets, sash and saber, Union Brigadier General David M. Gregg rode by and recognized Chambliss, his schoolmate at West Point in the early 1850's. He took charge of the body and sent it through the lines to Chambliss' widow in Hicksford (now Emporia). By his actions, Gregg adhered to the spirit of the West Point hymn, to "grip hands though it be from the shadows." (Route 5, .9 mile east of Turner Road).
On September 28th, 1864, elements of Major General Benjamin Franklin Butler's Army of the James River to assault the Confederate defenses of Richmond. At dawn, on September 29th, Six regiments of U.S. Colored Troops fought with exceptional valor during their attack along New Market Road. Despite heavy casualties, they carried the earthworks there and succeeded in capturing New Market Heights, north of the road. Of the 20 Medals of Honor awarded to "Negro" soldiers and sailors during the Civil War, 14 were bestowed for this battle. Butler wrote that "the capacity of the negro race for soldiers had then and there been fully settled forever." (Route 5, 8.5 miles southeast of Richmond).
So named in 1607 by Captain Christopher Newport on his voyage of discovery up the James River. In 1684 it became the property of William Randolph, founder of the Randolph family in Virginia and ancestor of Jefferson, Marshall and Lee. The colonial house was destroyed by Union gunboats in 1862. An action took place near the creek between Union and Confederate forces, June 30, 1862. (Route 5, 12.3 miles southeast of Richmond). [N/A]
A colonial dwelling of the Cocke family was here. Lafayette camped here in July to August, 1781, watching Cornwallis. Here George B. McClellan's army retiring from Richmond was attacked by Robert E. Lee on July 1, 1862. Lee did not storm the hill, but that night McClellan fell back to the James River at Harrison's Landing (now Berkeley Plantation). (Route 5, 13.3 miles southeast of Richmond).
The outer line of Richmond defenses, 1862 to 1865, here crossed the road. To the east were the intermediatee defenses; the inner line lay well within the limits of the present city. (Route 250, 1.9 miles west of Richmond). [N/A]
Over this road, James Longstreet's and A.P. Hill's Confederate Divisions marched, on June 29, 1862, to attack George B. McClellan, U.S.A., at Frazier's Farm. (Route 60, at the intersection of the Williamsburg Avenue (Rt. 60) with the Darbytown Road). [N/A]
Over the road here, D.H. Hill's and James Longstreet's Army Divisions moved, on May 31, 1862, to the Battle of Seven Pines and over it, on June 29, 1862, John B. Magruder, C.S.A., moved to the Battle of Savage's Station. (Route 60, .4 mile east of the city of Richmond.
Over this road Ruger's division moved, on June 29, 1862, to attack McClellan a Frazier's Farm. (Route 60, 1 mile east of Richmond). [N/A]
The picket line of General George B. McClellan's army crossed the road here on the morning of May 31, 1862. (Route 60, at Sandston).
Here was McClellan's first line of defense, held by Silas Casey, U.S.A. The Confederates, advancing eastward on May 31, 1862, stormed the earthworks. (Route 60, at Sandston).
At Fair Oaks Station, a mile north, McClellan's right wing stayed the advance of the Confederates on May 31, 1862. (Route 60, .5 mile east of Sandston). [N/A]
This road was used, on June 29, 1862, by McClellan's army moving to the James River, and by Stonewall Jackson, following, on June 30, 1862. (Route 60, 2 miles east of Sandston). [N/A]
In this vicinity was fought the engagement of Yellow Tavern between Sheridan's Cavalry raiding to Richmond and the Confederates. (Route 1, 6.25 miles north of Richmond). [N/A]
This is the site of Yellow Tavern, an old inn on the Richmond Road. In this vicinity a Cavalry engagement took place on May 11, 1864, between Philip Sheridan raiding to Richmond and J.E.B. Stuart defending the city. Sheridan penetrated the outer defenses of Richmond but then turned off. (Route 1, 2.5 miles north of Richmond). [N/A]
Here, east and west, ran the outer line of the Richmond defenses, 1862 to 1865. At this point Sheridan's Cavalry, raiding to Richmond, broke through the line on May 11, 1864, after the fight at Yellow Tavern. (Route 1, .7 mile north of Richmond).
One half mile to the east, on the Old Telegraph Road, is a monument marking the field where General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded on May 11, 1864. The monument was erected by veterans of Stuart's Cavalry in 1888. (Route 1, at the intersection with Route 677, at Richmond).
Here ran, east and west, the intermediate line of Richmond defenses, 1862 through 1865. Judson Kilpatrick on his raid came, March 1, 1864, nearly to this spot. (city of Richmond at the intersection of Chamberlayne and Laburnum Avenues). [N/A]
Philip Sheridan, in his raid to Richmond on May 11, 1864, entered the outer defenses on the Brook Road. At this point he turned east to Mechanicsville). (city of Richmond at the intersection of Chamberlayne and Azalia Avenues). [N/A]
Called Mountain Road Crossing when rail service began in 1836, the settlement which came to be known as Glen Allen took its name from the homestead of a local landowner, Mrs. Benjamin Allen. Its most noted resident was Captain John Cussons, a native Englishman, Confederate scout, author and enterpreneur. Cussons made his residence here after the Civil War and founded a successful printing company. Later he built a fashionable resort hotel known as Forest Lodge adjacent to the railroad tracks. ( Mountain Road at Glen Allen).
Here a part of McClellan's Army crossed the Chickahominy River on May 23, 1862, advancing on Richmond. It was attacked by the Confederates at Seven Pines. (Route 60, at Bottoms Bridge).
This was the main road to Williamsburg in early days. Cornwallis, retiring eastward, used this road in June, 1781. The Confederates, retreating westward, passed over it in May, 1862. (Route 60, at Bottoms Bridge).
Half a mile south is Soane's Bridge over the Chickahominy River. Here J.E.B. Stuart crossed, on June 14, 1862, in his famous ride around McClellan; here the Ninth and Sixth Corps of Grant's Army crossed, June 13th and 14th, 1864. (Route 60, at Bottoms Bridge). [N/A]
One mile south is Long Bridge over the Chickahominy River. Benedict Arnold sent Simcoe there in the British invasion of 1781. James Longstreet crossed there in the Peninsula Campaign, May, 1862. Ulysses S. Grant's Fifth and Second Corps crossed there, in June, 1864, on the way to Petersburg. (Route 60, 4.9 miles southeast of Bottoms Bridge).
This place, six miles northeast, was the home of Martha Custis. According to tradition, George Washington first met her at Poplar Grove, nearby, in 1758. On January 6, 1759, Washington and Mary Custis were married, it is believed at the White House. The house was burned by Union troops when McClellan made the White House his base of operations in May, 1862. (Route 249, at Talleysville).
J.E.B. Stuart, on his famous ride around McClellan's Army, June 12th through 15th, 1862, arrived here in the early night of June 13, coming from Hanover Courthouse. He rested here for several hours and then pressed on to the Chickahominy River, rejoining Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia on June 15. (Route 33, at Talleysville).
Lord Cornwallis's army was here, moving eastward, June 22, 1781; Lafayette, in pursuit, June 25; Washington, Rochambeau and Chastellux, on their way to Yorktown, September 14, 1781. A part of General Joseph E. Johnston's Confederate army, retiring to Richmond, passed through, May, 1862. (Route 249, at New Kent).
A mile north, at Eltham Landing on the Pamunkey River, William Buel Franklin's Division of McClellan's army disembarked on May 6, 1862. The next morning the Union troops came in contact with the Confederates retiring toward Richmond. The Confederate wagon trains were in danger, but Gustavus W. Smith drove Franklin back to the river. The action occurred in this vicinity, May 7, 1862. (Route 33, 1.5 miles west of West Point).
In this vicinity the Union Cavalryman, David McMurtie Gregg, guarding army trains moving to Petersburg, was attacked by Wade Hampton, June 24, 1864. Gregg was driven back toward Charles City Courthouse, but the wagon trains crossed the James River safely. This action closed the Cavalry Campaign that began at Trevillians, June 11th and 12th, 1864. (Route 603, 13.4 miles southeast of Seven Pines).
The house is a short distance south. Shirley was first occupied in 1613 and was known as West and Shirley Hundred. In 1664, Edward Hill patented the place, which was left by the third Edward Hill to his sister, Elizabeth Carter, in 1720. Here was born Anne Hill Carter, the mother of Robert E. Lee, who often visited Shirley. The present house was built about 1740. (Route 5, 17.1 miles southeast of Richmond).
A short distance south. The place was first settled in 1619 but was abandoned. It was repatented in 1636. Benjamin Harrison, signer of the Declaration of Independence, lived here; his son, William Henry Harrison, President of the United States, was born here, 1773. In July and August, 1862, Union General George B. McClellan had his headquarters at Berkeley while the Army of the Potomac was here. (Route 5, 7.2 miles southwest of Charles City).
A short distance south is Westover Church. It was first built on the James River near Westover House early in the eigtheenth century. About 1730 the site was changed and the present building erected. Defaced in the Campaign of 1862, the church was reopened for worship in 1867. (Route 5, 6.5 miles west of Charles City).
This Church, four miles north, was used as a field hospital, June, 1864, following the action at Nance's Shop, where the Union Cavalryman, Gregg, guarding a wagon train, was attacked by Wade Hampton. Gregg was driven from the field but saved the wagons. Wounded soldiers were brought here to the church and some of the dead were buried here. (Route 5, 5.9 miles west of Charles City).
Originally part of William Byrd's Westover, Evelyton has been occupied by the Ruffin family since 1847, when it was purchased by Edmund Ruffin, Jr. Fierce skirmishes took place on the property during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Confederate troops were led by Generals J.E.B. Stuart and James Longstreet. The breastworks are still visible near the house. The dwelling and dependencies of the plantation were much damaged during the fighting. The Georgian-Revival house, built on the foundation of an earlier structure, was designed by noted architect, Duncan Lee, in 1935. ( Route 5, 4.73 miles west of Charles City).
A mile south, at Wilcox's Wharf, a part of Ulysses S. Grant's Army going to Petersburg was ferried over the James River to Windmill Point, June 14th to 16th, 1864. The rest of the army crossed a little lower on a pontoon bridge. (Route 5, 2.4 miles west of Charles City).
In 1702 Charles City County, which then included both sides of the James River, was divided; the Courthouse here was built about 1730. Here Simcoe's British cavalry surprised a party of militia, January 8, 1781. Here Grant's army passed on its way to the river, June, 1864. (Route 5, at Charles City).
Five miles due south. In 1617, the Indian chief, Opechancanough, gave Governor Yeardley land there. In 1665, the place passed to Joseph Harwood, whose descendants, the Douthats, still own it. In June, 1864, most of Grant's army cross the James River at Weyanoke on a pontoon bridge near half a mile long. (Route 5, at Charles City).
Just to the south is Sherwood Forest, where President John Tyler lived after his retirement from the Presidency until his death in 1862. He bought the place in 1842 and came to it as his home in March, 1845. Here Tyler, with his young second wife, entertained much and raised another large family. The house, well furnished, was damaged in the war period, 1862 to 1865. (Route 5, 3.5 miles east of Charles City).
Three miles south is North Bend, a Greek Revival residence built in 1819. Sarah Minge, sister of President William Henry Harrison, and her husband, John, built the original portion of the house located on Kittiewan Creek. Thomas H. Wilcox greatly enlarged the dwelling in 1853. General Sheridan established his Union headquarters here while his 30,000 men crossed the James River on a pontoon bridge at Weyanoke. (Route 5, 1.27 miles east of Charles City).
Four miles north on the James River. When Benedict Arnold fell back down the James after his raid to Richmond, Baron Steuben, at Coggin's Point, observed his fleet, January 10, 1781. From the bluff General D. H. Hill bombarded George McClellan's camp on the north side of the river, July 31, 1862. (Route 10, 8.3 miles northwest of Burrowsville).
The creek nearby was named for Nathaniel Powell, acting governor in 1619. Weyanoke Indian town was here. Nearby is the site of an old mill, known in the Revolution as Bland's, and later, Cocke's Mill. The British General Phillips passed here, May, 1781. Here Ulysses S. Grant's army, after crossing the James River, turned towards Petersburg, June, 1864. (Route 10, 5.3 miles northwest of Burrowsville).
Four miles north. Governor Sir George Yeardley patented land there in 1619, and in 1621 built at Windmill Point the first windmill in English America. The place was named for Temperance Flowerdew, Yeardley's wife. Near there Ulysses S. Grant's army crosses the James River in June, 1864. (Route 10, 5.3 miles northwest of Burrowsville).
Just to the north of the road here, at old Sycamore Church, Wade Hampton, coming from the south, attacked the Union Cavalry guarding Grant's beef cattle, September 16, 1864. The Unionists were overpowered; Hampton, rounding up 2,500 beeves, succeeded in escaping with them across the Blackwater and into Robert E. Lee's lines). (Route 106, 6.8 miles east of Prince George).
Five miles north on the James River. There, in 1619, Samuel Jordan established a place, Jordan's Journey. Near there, in April, 1676, the settlers in arms against the Indians chose Bacon as their leader. The Revolutionary leader, Richard Bland, had his home there, and near by the great agriculturist, Edmund Ruffin, lived. (Route 106, 2.9 miles east of Prince George).
Lord Cornwallis, going toward the James River in pursuit of Lafayette, passed here, May 24, 1781. A part of Grant's army passed here on the way to Petersburg, June, 1864. The place was occupied by Union troops in 1864 to 1865. (Route 106, at Prince George).
City Point is five miles northeast. There Governor Sir Thomas Dale made a settlement in 1613. In April, 1781, the British General Philips landed there. Ulysses S. Grant had his base of operations there in the siege of Petersburg, 1864 to 1865. President Abraham Lincoln was there in April, 1865. In the World War the city of Hopewell grew up near by. (Route 36, .7 mile east of Petersburg).
Three miles north. There, the Union Cavalryman, August Valentine Kautz, in James Harrison Wilson's raid, destroyed the station, June 22, 1864. Returning from Burkeville, Kautz reached there again June 29, and was joined by Wilson. Attacked by Wade Hampton, C.S.A., Wilson and Kautz hastily retreated to Ulysses S. Grant's army. Winfield Scott Hancock, while destroying the Weldon Railroad, was attacked at Reams Station by A.P. Hill and Hampton, August 25, 1864, and driven back to Grant's army. (Route 301, 12.6 miles south of Petersburg).
Poplar Lawn is now known as Central Park. Here the Petersburg volunteers camped here in October, 1812, before leaving for the Canadian border. Here Lafayette was greeted with music and speeches in 1824. The place was bought by the city in 1844. Volunteer companies enlisted here, April 19, 1861. In the siege of 1864 to 1865, a hospital stood here. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of South Sycamore and Filmore Streets).
Three blocks north and a half block west is the Beasley house where General Robert E. Lee had his headquarters in 1864 during the siege of Petersburg. He moved thence to Edge Hill to be in closer touch with his right wing. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of West Washington and Lafayette Streets).
On the northeast corner stood a famous colonial tavern. Lafayette was entertained there in 1824. It was replaced in 1828 by Niblo's Hotel, built by William Niblo. Later it was known as the Bollingbrook Hotel. It was a favorite resort of generals in the siege of 1864 to 1865. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of Bollingbrook and Second Streets).
St. Paul's Church was built in 1856. Here Robert E. Lee and his staff worshipped during the siege of Petersburg, 1864 to 1865. Lee attended the wedding of his son, Major General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, in this church in 1867. (City of Petersburg, on West Washington Street).
The Brick Church on Well's Hill, now known as Old Blandford Church, was built between 1734 and 1737. The British General Phillips was buried in the Churchyard in 1781. In the cemetery is a monument to Captain McRae and the Petersburg volunteers, who at Fort Meigs in 1813 won for Petersburg the name of the "Cockade City of the Union." Soldiers of six wars rest here, among them 30,000 Confederates. (City of Petersburg, on Crater Road, near the intersection with Cameron Street).
Half a block south is the home of Major General William Mahone, famed for his gallant conduct at the Battle of the Crater, July 30, 1864. Two blocks south is the Wallace home, where Abraham Lincoln conferred with General Grant, April 3, 1865, preceding Grant's march to Appomattox. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of South Market and West Washington Streets).
On June 9, 1864, Kautz's Union Cavalry, 1,300 men, after overwhelming Brigadier General James Jay Archer's militia, one mile south, moved westward on this road to attack the city. Upon the hillside, one mile west, they were repulsed by the battery of Captain Edward Graham, and later driven to retreat by General James Dearing's Cavalry. This attack, in conjunction with an infantry force that did not come up, was the first attempt to capture Petersburg. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of Graham and Crater Roads).
Upon this site, on June 9, 1864, Captain Edward Graham, commanding two guns of the Petersburg artillery, repulsed the attack of Kautz's Cavalry, 1,300 men, and by this gallant defense the city was saved. Later the Union forces were driven to retreat by the supporting cavalry of General James Dearing. (City of Petersburg, at the corner of Graham Road and Clinton Street).
Here ran, east and west, the intermediate line of Richmond defenses during the Civil War. Near this spot on March 1st, 1864, Union Brigadier General H. Judson Kilpatrick halted his raid that was intended to free Union prisoners and lower morale in the Confederate capital. A detachment led by Colonel Ulric Dahlgren was defeated to the west of the city. On March 2nd, Dahlgren was killed; Southern moral soared! ( City of Richmond, at the intersections of Laburnam and Chamberlayne Avenues).
Major General James Ewell Brown, C.S.A., Commander of the Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia, died here on March 12th, 1864, in the home of his brother-in-law, Dr. Charles Brewer. Cause of his death was a wound received the previous day in the defense of Richmond at the Battle of Yellow Tavern. Dr. Brewer's house was demolished in 1893. ( City of Richmond, at 206 W. Grace Street).
Founded in 1831, the Virginia Historical Society is the oldest such institution in the South. It was located in the Stewart-Lee house in downtown Richmond until 1958, when it moved to its present quarters in Battle Abbey. The Society's extensive collections of Virginiana - manuscripts, rare books, portraits, photographs, and museum objects - form the basis of a research library, museum exhibitions, publications, lectures, and other public educational programs. ( City of Richmond, Boulevard at Kensington Avenue).
Approximately 250 unidentified Confederate soldiers, who died at nearby Huguenot Springs Confederate Hospital, are buried in unmarked graves about a mile and a half southwest of here. Burial records have never been located. The former Huguenot Springs Hotel Resort/Spa, opened in 1847, was converted to a convalescent hospital during the Civil War. The building was burned about 1890. (Route 711, 2.13 miles west of the Chesterfield County line).
Just east of this point running from the James River to the Appomattox River, was the Confederate defense line known as the Howlett line, named for the Howlett House that stood at the north end of the line. Established in May, 1864, by General Beauregard's troops, after the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, the line became famous as the "Cork in the Bottle"by keeping General Butler's Army of the James at bay. The Union line was one mile to the east. Parker's Virginia Battery was one-half mile to the south. (Route 10, 1.08 miles east of the city of Chester).
Port Walthall, which stood on the banks of the Appomattox River several miles to the south, was a major shipping and passenger embarkation point prior to the Civil War. The railroad tracks leading to the port were melted down to manufacture Confederate cannon. (Route 10, 2.25 miles west of the City of Hopewell, at Enon).
Point of Rocks is located two miles south on the Appomatox River. In 1608, Captain John Smith wrote about this high rock cliff which projected out to the channel of the river. Known to all as Point of Rocks, it was severely damaged during a battle between Confederate artillery and Federal gunboats on June 26th, 1862. Rock from the point was used to build the wall of the City Point National Cemetery shortly after the Civil War. (Route 10, 2.25 miles west of the City of Hopewell, at Enon).
Established by 1807, the Providence Church congregation of the Methodist Episcopal Church became one of the first Methodist congregations in Chesterfield County to build a permanent house of worship when it constructed a meeting-house here before 1813. The congregation included both whites and blacks. During the Civil War, soldiers from both sides used the church for shelter. In 1896 the congregation built a Gothic Revival church here; it was replaced in 1958. (Route 678, .86 mile south of Route 60).
Five miles north are the ruins of Bellona Arsenal, established by the United States government in 1816. It was used as an arsenal and barracks until 1835. A foundry was also here and cannon were cast. In 1853, the arsenal was sold; in 1861 it was taken over by the Virginia government and served the Confederate cause. (Route 60, 5.7 miles west of Richmond). [N/A]
In 1810, Major John Clarke and noted Richmond lawyer, William Wirt, established a weapons factory for the U.S. War Department on the south bank of the James River five miles north of here. Bellona Arsenal, (named for the Roman goddess of war) [sic] was erected in 1816. After 5 years of disuse, it was leased to Thomas Mann Randolph in 1837 (for use as a silk worm farm). [sic] Junius L. Archer bought the property in 1856, and on January 1st, 1863, he leased both the arsenal and foundry to the Confederate government. Bellona Arsenal became one of Virginia's leading producers of arms. (Route 60, 3.22 miles west of Richmond).
Half a mile north is Black Heath, originally owned by John Heth, Revolutionary soldier. Here Major General Henry Heth of the Confederate army was born, 1825. The best coal in Virginia was long found in the Black Heath mine. (Route 60, 1.7 miles east of Midlothian).
A mile south are the Midlothian Coal Mines, probably the oldest coal mines in America. Coal was first mined here before 1730 and a railway was built from the mines to the James River before 1830. Operations went on continuously until 1865, and the coal used in cannon casting at the Tredegar Ironn Works, Richmond, was obtained here. (Route 60, at Midlothian). [N/A]
Two miles north stood Salisbury, built in the eighteenth century as a hunting lodge. There Patrick Henry lived during his fourth and fifth terms as Governor of Virginia, 1784 to 1786. The Confederate General Edward Johnson lived there in his later years and died there. (Route 60, at Midlothian).
This bluff on the James River, a mile east, was fortified by Captain A.H. Drewry in 1862. A Union fleet, attempting to pass it, was driven back, May 15, 1862; and thereafter it served as a bar to attacks on Richmond by water. On June 16, 1864, James Longstreet's Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army crossed the river there going to the defense of Petersburg. (Route 1, 2.5 miles south of Richmond).
A mile east is Drewry's Bluff, James River fortifications of Richmond 1862 to 1865. Earthworks remain. (Route 1, 2.5 miles south of Richmond).
From this point the Confederates, on May 16, 1864, moved to attack the Union Army of the James under Benjamin Butler advancing northward on Richmond. (Route 1, 3.9 miles south of Richmond).
Here ran the line of battle of the Union Army on the morning of May 16, 1864. The earthworks, taken by the Unionists on May 14, were given up by them on May 16. (Route 1, 4.5 miles south of Richmond). [N/A]
Headquarters of the Union Army of the James, this old inn was a central point in the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864. (Route 1, 5.4 miles south of Richmond).
The Union Army, retiring across Proctor's Creek after the battle of May 16, 1864, in this vicinity turned east into the "bottle" between the James and Appomattox Rivers. (Route 1, 6 miles south of Richmond). [N/A]
The Union Army of the James, retiring across Proctor's Creek in this vicinity after the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864, turned east into the Peninsula between the James and Appomattox Rivers, where it was "Bottled" by the Confederate forces. (Route 1, 6.5 miles south of Richmond).
This great bend in the James River lies due east. The town of Henrico was established here in 1611. In August, 1864, Benjamin F. Butler cut a canal through the neck, shortening the river five miles. (Route 1, 6.7 miles south of Richmond).
At this station, two miles west, the Union Army of the James, turning toward Richmond, fought an action on May 10, 1864, and tore up the railroad. (Route 1, 7.8 miles south of Richmond).
This place, some miles to the east, is on the James at the mouth of the Appomattox River. A town was established there in 1613. Phillips and Arnold sailed from there in May, 1781. In May, 1864, it became the base of operations of the Army of the James. (Route 1, 7.8 miles south of Petersburg).
The main line of Confederate earthworks, 1864 to 1865, ran from the creek here to Drewry's Bluff on the James River. (Route 1, 8 miles south of Richmond). [N/A]
At the Clay house to the east Robert E. Lee, going to the defenses of Petersburg, had his headquarters on June 17, 1864. (Route 1, 7.5 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
The Confederates, feeling out the Union lines, attacked them just to the east on June 2, 1864, but soon withdrew. (Route 1, 6.9 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
This is the peninsula between the James and Appomattox Rivers in which the Army of the James was "bottled" by Pierre G.T. Beauregard in 1864 to 1865. The line of Union earthworks was enclosed by a line of Confederate works. (Route 1, 6.2 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
This is on the railroad just to the east. Here the Union Army, coming from the James River on May 7, 1864, began to tear up the railroad track. (Route 1, 5.4 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
Here, on May 12, 1864, the Union Army, advancing northward, formed line of battle across the road and drove the Confederates back on Proctor's Creek. (Route 1, 4.5 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
The Union Army of the James drove off the defenders and destroyed the railroad here for several miles, May 6th through 12th, 1864. (Route 1, 4.25 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
Here the Union Army of the James, on May 9, 1864, turned southward toward Petersburg. (Route 1, 4.1 miles north of Petersburg). [N/A]
Here the Army of the James, moving on Petersburg, May 9, 1864, was checked by the Confederate defenses on the creek and turned northward. (Route 1, 3.4 miles north of Petersburg).
Lee's headquarters from the latter part of June, 1864, to September, 1864, were here. (Route 1, at Colonial Heights).
To the west of the road here the Union Army of the James, on May 13th and 14th, 1864, attacked the outer line of the Drewry's Bluff defenses. The Confederates withdrew to their second line on Kingsland Creek. (Route 301, at Proctor's Creek). [N/A]
Here Anthony Wayne took station in July, 1781, to prevent the British from moving southward. Here, April 3, 1865, James Longstreet's, A.P. Hill's, and John Gordon's Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army, retreating from Petersburg toward Danville, crossed the river. (Route 360, 7.8 miles east of Amelia).
Here the Confederates, under General Henry Heth, made a gallant stand, April 2, 1865, but were finally overwhelmed. The loss of this point cut Robert E. Lee's railway connection with Danville. On April 3, Ulysses S. Grant and George G. Meade camped here in pusuit of Lee. (Route 460, .2 mile east of Sutherland).
Four miles south is the battlefield of Five Forks. To that point, George Pickett retired from Dinwiddie Courthouse in the night of March 31, 1865. Philip Sheridan, following, attacked him in the afternoon of April 1, 1865. The Confederates, outnumbered and surrounded, were overwhelmed. This defeat broke Robert E. Lee's line of defense around Petersburg, and forced him to retreat. (Route 460, 4.9 miles west of Sutherland).
Located here was the farm of Robert D. McIlwaine, where on the afternoon of April 2, 1865, General Robert E. Lee ordered the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg by the Confederates and the westward march which ended at Appomattox. (Route 1, just south of Petersburg).
To the right stood the Turnbull House, headquarters of General Robert E. Lee from November 23, 1864, until April 2, 1865. After Lee's departure to Cottage Farm, Federal artillery destroyed the house. The present residence was one of the detached buildings. (Route 1, just south of Petersburg).
In the field a short distance north of this road, the Confederate General A.P. Hill was killed, April 2, 1865. Hill, not knowing that Robert E. Lee's lines had been broken, rode into a party of Union soldiers advancing on Petersburg. (Route 1, 2.8 miles southwest of Petersburg).
In a field here were penned the cattle herd captured near City Point on September 16, 1864 by Confederate Cavalry under General Wade Hampton. The herd was penned here after Hampton's return within his own lines. (Intersection of Routes 1 and 613, 5 miles southwest of Petersburg).
Robert E. Lee's right wing was defended by earthworks on this stream, here and to the east. These works were unsuccessfully attacked by Union forces, February 5th to 7th, 1865. On the morning of April 2, 1865, they were stormed by Union troops. (Route 1, 6.4 miles southwest of Petersburg).
Hoping to cut Lee's supply route into Petersburg, in February 1865, Grant ordered two army corps led by Major Generals Gouverneur K. Warren and Andrew A. Humphreys to seize the Boydton Plank Road. The Confederate Corps commanded by Major General John B. Gordon successfully blocked Warren's attacks at nearby Dabney's Mill on February 6th-7th, and Warren's corps withdrew to its previous position. The brief Union campaign enabled Grant to extend his lines, and cost the Confederates the life of Brigadier General John Pegram on February 6th. (Route 613, 2.2 miles east of Route 1).
An old mill stood here, with earthworks. On October 27, 1864, General Winfield Scott Hancock, U.S.A., coming from the south, attempted to cross the run here and reach the Southside Railroad. He was supported on the east by Warren's (Fifth) Corps. The Confederates, crossing the run from the north side, intervened between the two Union forces and drove them back. (Route 1, 6.4 miles south of Petersburg).
The extreme left of Robert E. Lee's line rested on this road, which was entrenched. General G. K. Warren, advancing against Lee's works here, March 31, 1865, was driven back. Reinforced, Warren advanced again, forcing the Confederates to retire to the road. On it, six miles west, the Battle of Five Forks was fought the next day, April 1, 1865. (Route 1, 6.8 miles south of Petersburg).
Just south of the junction here of the Boydton Plank Road and Quaker Road, General G.K. Warren, moving northward, came in contact with Anderson's Corps of Lee's Army. After a sharp action, Anderson fell back to the trenches on the White Oak Road, March 29, 1865. (Route 1, 7.7 miles south of Petersburg). [N/A]
This is the site of the old Dinwiddie Tavern, famous shopping place in the latter part of the eigtheenth century. It was burned in 1865. (Route 1, at Dinwiddie). [N/A]
Just to the west stands the law office occupied in early life by Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, commander of the United States Army, 1841 to 1861. Scott, born here, June 13, 1786 was admitted to the bar in 1806 and entered the army in 1808. He died, May 29, 1866. (Route 1, at Dinwiddie).
Major General Philip Sheridan, U.S.A., advanced to this place on March 29, 1865, while Gouverneur Kemble Warren was attacking Richard Heron Anderson about three miles north. On March 31, Sheridan moved south but was checked by George Pickett and driven back to the courthouse. That night Pickett withdrew to Five Forks. (Route 1, at Dinwiddie).
General Winfield S. Hancock, U.S.A., moved by it to his defeat at Burgess Mill, October 27, 1864, and in 1865, Ulysses S. Grant moved his forces on it from the east to attack Robert E. Lee's right wing. On March 29, 1865, Philip Sheridan came to Dinwiddie Court House over it in the operations preceding the Battle of Five Forks. (Route 1, at Dinwiddie).
That stream flows into Stony Creek a mile west. On March 31, 1865, George Pickett and William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, coming from Five Forks, forced a passage of Chamberlain's Bed in the face of Philip Sheridan's troops, who were driven back to Dinwiddie Courthouse. (Route 1, 1.1 miles southwest of Dinwiddie).
This was the first in a series of attempts by Grant's army to cut Lee's final supply line - the South Side Railroad - in spring 1865. Here at the Lewis farm, Union forces led by Brigadier General Joshua L. Chamberlain engaged Confederates under Major General Bushrod R. Johnson. After sharp fighting, the Union troops entrenched nearby along the Boydton Plank Road and Johnson withdrew to his lines at White Oak Road. The Union army cut the rail line four days later, after capturing Five Forks on April 1st. (Route 660, .78 mile east of Route 1).
Union forces belonging to the V Corps, under Major General Gouverneur K. Warren, sought to seize the White Oak Road and sever the Confederate line of communication with Major General George E. Pickett's detachment near Five Forks, four miles west. From here General Robert E. Lee personally supervised the counterattack to Gravelly Run by Lt. General Richard H. Anderson's corps. After a brief success, the Confederates were forced back into these entrenchments as Warren's men gained the important roadway. (Route 613, 1.63 mile west of Route 1).
Named in honor of Confederate Major General George Edward Pickett upon its creation in 1942, Camp Pickett was dedicated to the cause of a "reunited nation at war." Established as a 46,000-acre World War II Army installation, Camp Pickett was home to eight combat divisions, seven infantry divisions, and one armored division, during both the European and the Pacific Campaigns. The famed "Cross of Lorraine" 79th Infantry Division trained here before the invasion of Normandy. The post was redesignated Fort Pickett and became a full-time training facility in 1974. (Route 40, 1 mile south of Route 460).
A tobacco center, originally known as "Black's and White's for rival tavern keepers. The Union General James Harrison Wilson passed here on the raid of June, 1864. General Edward Otho Cresap (E.O.C.) Ord, with a corps of Grant's army, spent the night of April 5th and 6th, 1865, here. The name of the town was changed to Blackstone about 1885; it was incorporated in 1888. Blackstone College for girls is here. (Route 460, at Blackstone).
Near here the Confederate Cavalryman, William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, C.S.A., interposed between Wilson and Kautz raiding to Burkeville and fought a sharp action, June 23, 1864. Wilson then started on his return to Grant's Army. Grant passed here with a part of his army in pursuit of Robert E. Lee, April 5, 1865. Here he received word from Sheridan that the latter was at Jetersville across Lee's line of retreat. (Route 460, .2 mile west of Nottoway).
The Union General E.O.C. Ord reached this place in the night of April 5, 1865, to head off Robert E. Lee. On April 6, Ord sent a cavalry force from here to burn the bridges near Farmville and then moved westward with the Twenty fourth U.S. Army Corps. (Route 360, at Burkeville).
Tarleton's British Cavalry, raiding west, stopped here in July, 1781. When railroads were built, the place was known as Burke's Junction. The Union Cavalryman, August Valentine Kautz destroyed the railways here in June, 1864. Jefferson Davis passed through Burkeville, going south, April 3, 1865. Grant's headquarters were here, April 6, 1865. (Route 360, at Burkeville).
Near hear Major General George Armstrong Custer, commanding the advance guard of the Army of the Potomac, struck and drove back Major General Fitzhugh Lee, the left flank guard of the Army of Northern Virginia). (Route 38, 7 miles east of Mannboro).
Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia reached Amelia, April 4th and 5th, 1865, moving southward. Here it was delayed by having to forage for food. In the afternoon of April 5th, Lee advanced toward Jetersville. (Route 360, at Amelia).
Near here Robert E. Lee, moving south toward Danville in the afternoon of April 5, 1865, found the road blocked by General Philip Henry Sheridan. He then turned westward by way of Amelia Springs, hoping to reach the Southside (Norfolk and Western) Railroad. (Route 360, 4.8 miles southwest of Amelia).
Near here, April 6, 1865, General George Gordon Meade, U.S.A., who was advancing northward on Amelia Courthouse, learned that Robert E. Lee had turned westward. Meade sent the Second Corps on the Deatonsville Road, the Fifth Corps on the Paineville Road, and the Sixth Corps on a parallel route. (Route 360, 5.3 miles southwest of Amelia).
Major General Philip H. Sheridan reached here on April 4, 1865, with Cavalry and the Fifth Army Corps, and entrenched. He was thus squarely across Robert E. Lee's line of retreat to Danville. On April 5, Grant and George G. Meade arrived from the east with the Second Corps and the Sixth Corps. (Route 360, .7 mile southwest of Jetersville).
From here Union Cavalry moved north on April 5, 1865, to ascertain Robert E. Lee's whereabouts. On the morning of April 6, the Second, Fifth and Sixth Army Corps of Ulysses Simpson Grant's Army advanced from Jetersville toward Amelia Courthouse to attack Lee. (Route 360, at Jetersville).
Three miles north in Amelia Springs, once a noted summer resort. There Robert E. Lee, checked by Sheridan at Jetersville and forced to detour, spent the night of April 5th, 1865. (Route 360, at Jetersville).
This is the Hillsman House, used by the Unionists as a hospital in the engagement of April 6, 1865. From the west side of the creek the Confederates charged and broke through the Union infantry, but were stopped by the batteries along the hillside here. A mass surrender followed, including a Corps Commander, Richard Stoddard Ewell, several other generals, many colonels, about 7,000 rank and file, and several hundred wagons. It was the largest unstipulated surrender of the war. (Route 617, 5 miles northeast of Rice).
At the same time another engagement took place two miles north, on the mail Sailor's (Sayler's) Creek, where Major General John Brown Gordon, C.S.A., repulsed pursuing Union troops. He lost most of his wagons but saved the majority of his men. At this time General Robert E. Lee was retreating from Petersburg toward Danville, closely followed by General Ulysses S. Grant. Lee lost half of his troops in these two rearguard actions, which foreshadowed the surrender at Appomattox three days later. (Route 617, 5 miles northeast of Rice).
Two miles north are the Battlefields of Sailor's Creek, April 6, 1865. There Grant captured more men than were captured in any other one day's field engagement of the war. (Route 307, 3 miles east of Rice).
One mile north stood the Southside Railroad Bridge, spanning the 75-foot-wide Appomattox River. On April 6th, 1865, nine hundred Union soldiers attempting to burn the 2,500 foot-long, 126-foot-high structure were captured by Confederate Cavalry. Crossing on April 7th, retreating Confederates burned four spans but failed to destroy the lower wagon bridge thus allowing Union soldiers to cross and attack at Cumberland Church, north of Farmville. ( Route 619 at Route 688, 2.25 miles north of Route 460).
Six miles north took place the Battle of Sailor's Creek, April 6, 1865. Robert E. Lee's Army, retreating westward from Amelia Courthouse to Farmville by way of Deatonsville, was attacked by Philip H. Sheridan, who surrounded Richard S. Ewell's Corps. After a fierce action the Confederates were overpowered. Ewell, eleven other generals, and several thousand men were captured. This was the last major engagement between Robert E. Lee's and Ulysses S. Grant's armies. (Route 460, at Rice).
Three miles north took place the engagement of High Bridge, April 7, 1865. Robert E. Lee's rear guard at the bridge head on the west bank of the Appomattox River was driven off by the Second Corps of Grant's army after setting fire to the bridge. (Route 460, at Rice). [N/A]
Birthplace, and until 1811, residence of Peter Johnston, Lieutenant in Lee's Legion in the Revolution; and birthplace of his son, Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Brigadier General, U.S.A., and General, Confederate States of America (C.S.A.). (Route 460, at Farmville). [N/A]
At the McLean House at Appomattox, two miles north, took place the meeting between Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant to arrange terms for the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. This was at 1:30 p.m. on Sunday, April 9, 1865. (Intersection of Routes 460 and 131 at Appomattox).
Two miles north, at sunrise of April 9, 1865, Fitz Lee and John B. Gordon, C.S.A., moving westward, attacked Philip H. Sheridan's position. The attack was repulsed, but a part of the Confederate Cavalry under Munford and Rosser broke through the Union line and escaped. This was the last action between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Federal Army of the Potomac. (Intersection of Routes 460 and Route 131 at Appomattox).
This building, erected in 1892 when the county seat was moved to this location, should not be mistaken for the original, built in 1846 and destroyed by fire in 1892. Three miles northeast is Old Appomattox Court House and the McLean House where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, thus ending the War Between the States. The village of Old Appomattox Court House is now preserved as a national shrine by the Federal Government. (Route 131 at Appomattox). [N/A]
This first courthouse for Appomattox County, erected in 1846, was destroyed by fire in 1892. It was located three miles northeast in the village of Old Appomattox Court House where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9th, 1865, signalling the end of the Civil War. The village of Old Appomattox Court House is preserved as a national shrine by the National Parks Service of the United States Department of the Interior. This building was erected in 1892 when the county seat was moved to this location. (Route 131 at Appomattox).
Near this building stood the station of the South Side Rail Road where, on April 8th, 1865, three trains unloading supplies for the Army of Northern Virginia were captured by units of Sheridan's Union Cavalry under General George Armstrong Custer. Significant for its relationship to the surrender by General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, this action also marked the last strategic use of rail by the Confederate forces. (At the town of Appomattox, at the corner of Main and Church Streets).
Here were buried eighteen Confederate soldiers who died April 8th and 9th, 1865, in the closing days of the War Between the States. The remains of one unknown Union soldier found some years after the war are interred beside the Confederate dead. About 500 yards east of this cemetery is the McLean House where Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant signed the surrender terms. (Route 24, .2 mile east of Appomattox).
Robert E. Lee, retreating from Petersburg, reached the hills to the northeast, only to find Grant in position here across his line of retreat, April 8, 1865. The Confederates made an attack early in the morning of April 9. John B. Gordon broke through the opposing cavalry but was stopped by the infantry. Some hours later, Robert E. Lee rode along this road to meet Grant for surrender. (Route 24, 2 miles north of Appomattox). [N/A]
Part of Robert E. Lee's Army passed here retreating westward, April 8, 1865. The Sixth (Wright's) Corps of Grant's army passed here, in pursuit, in the afternoon of the same day, moving on toward Appomattox. (Route 15, 8.8 miles south of Sprouses Corner).
Part of Robert E. Lee's Army passed here, April 8, 1865, retreating westward. The Second (Humphrey's) Corps of Grant's army passed, in pursuit, in the afternoon of the same day. Grant spent the night here, receiving early in the morning of April 9th a note from Lee in regard to surrender. He sent a reply and then went on to Appomattox. (Route 15, 11.3 miles south of Sprouses Corner).
Just to the south a monument marks the spot where the tent of Robert E. Lee stood the night of April 12th, 13th, 1865. (Route 60, 1.1 miles east of Buckingham).
J.B. "Texas Jack" Omohundro was born at Pleasure Hill Farm about 1 mile west of here on July 26th, 1846. At age 17 he served as a scout under the command of General J.E.B. Stuart. Later he was renowned as a scout and heroic plainsman of the old west. Texas Jack with his friend, W.F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody started the first "Wild West" shows in America. He died in Leadville, Colorado, June 28th, 1880. (Route 15, 1 mile south of Palmyra).
Here at Flannagan's (Trice's) Mill, Robert E. Lee spent the night of April 13th to 14th, 1865, on his journey from Appomattox to Richmond). (Intersection of Routes 690 and 612, 8.8 miles south of Columbia).
Near here the ancient trail used by the Iroquois Indians in their raids crossedd the James River. This trail later became the main north and south road through Virginia. In 1781, Lord Cornwallis, in his invasion of Virginia, marched by this point and his cavalry, under Simcoe, passed here going to Point of Fork. A Cavalry skirmish took place here, March 11, 1865. (Route 6, at Goochland).
Here Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, Union Cavalryman, coming from the north, turned east. Dahlgren, who acted in concert with Judson Kilpatrick, left Stevensburg, Culpeper County, on February 24, 1864, and moved toward the James River, tearing up the Virginia Central Railroad near Frederick's Hall. He went on toward Richmond, burning mills and barns. (Route 6, 2.1 miles east of Crozier).
This is Sabot Hill, home of James A. Seddon, member of Congress and Confederate Secretary of War, 1862 to 1865, who built the house in 1855. On March 1, 1864, the Union Cavalryman, Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, raiding to Richmond, burned the barn and plundered the place. (Route 6, 2.6 miles east of Crozier).
Here Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, Union Cavalryman, raiding to Richmond, hanged a Negro on a tree beside the road, March 1, 1864. Dahlgren planned to cross the James River in this vicinity and enter Richmond from the south. A Negro guided the raiders to a ford but the water was too high for crossing. Dahlgren thought the guide has deceived him. (Route 650, 9 miles west of Richmond).
Ten miles north is "Derwent" where Robert E. Lee lived in the summer of 1865 as the guest of Mrs. E.R. Cocke. Lee arrived at "Derwent" early in July. While there he was offered the Presidency of Washington College, Lexington, which he accepted on August 24, 1865. On September 15, 1865, he left "Derwent" for Lexington. (Route 13, 2 miles east of Tobaccoville).
The first Courthouse was built about 1777. The village that grew up around it was long known as Scottsville for General Charles Scott, Revolutionary soldier, who lived in this county. A skirmish occurred here, January 25, 1865. Nearby is a tavern of the Revolutionary period. (Route 13, at Powhatan).
Here Robert E. Lee, returning from Appomattox, pitched his tent for the last time, April 14, 1865. He stopped here to visit his brother, Charles Carter Lee, who lived at nearby "Windsor." Fearing to incommidate his brother, Lee camped by the roadside and the next day ended his journey at Richmond. (Route 711, 9.5 miles north of Powhatan). [N/A]
Here Robert E. Lee, riding from Appomattox to Richmond to join his family, pitched his tent for the last time on April 14th, 1865. He stopped here to visit his brother, Charles Carter Lee, who lived at nearby "Windsor." Not wishing to incommode his brother, Lee camped by the roadside and the next day ended his journey at Richmond. (Route 711, 9.8 miles west of the Chesterfield County line).
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